Friday, March 13, 2020

Edwards Surname Meaning, Origin and Family History

Edwards Surname Meaning, Origin and Family History Edwards is a patronymic surname meaning son of Edward. It derives from the early medieval English given name, Edward, meaning prosperous guardian, from the Old English Eadward, composed of the elements ead, meaning prosperity or fortune, and w(e)ard, meaning guard. Edwards is the 53rd most popular surname in the United States and the 17th most common surname in England. Surname Origin:  EnglishAlternate Surname Spellings:  EDWARDES, EDWARDSON, EDWARD, EDWART Famous People With the EDWARDS Surname Jonathan Edwards: Protestant  Theologian, Philosopher, Journalist, Educator, ScholarGareth Edwards: Welsh rugby playerBlake Edwards:  American film director, producer and screenwriterTeresa Edwards: American basketball player; Olympic medalistRobert Alan Bob Edwards:  American author, radio journalist and host  Clement Edwards:  Welsh lawyer, journalist, trade union activist and Liberal politicianPierpont Edwards: American lawyer, judge and delegate to the American Continental Congress Where Is the EDWARDS Surname Most Commonly Found? According to surname distribution data from Forebears, Edwards is the 800th most common surname in the world. It is especially prevalent in the United States, where it ranks 51st, as well as England (21st), Australia (26th), Wales (14th), Trinidad and Tobago (18th), Jamaica (14th) and New Zealand (23rd). Within England it is most common in Shropshire, where it is the 5th most frequent surname. It is also the 7th most common surname in both Flintshire and Denbighshire, Wales. Ellis is found most frequently in Wales, according to WorldNames PublicProfiler, followed by Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Genealogy Resources for the Surname EDWARDS Edwards Family Genealogy Forum: Search this popular genealogy forum for the Edwards surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Edwards query.FamilySearch - EDWARDS  Genealogy: Explore over 7.6  million  historical records which mention individuals with the Edwards surname, as well as online Edwards family trees on this free website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.GeneaNet - Edwards  Records: GeneaNet includes archival records, family trees, and other resources for individuals with the Edwards  surname, with a concentration on records and families from France and other European countries. Resources and Further Reading Cottle, Basil.  Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967.Dorward, David.  Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998.Fucilla, Joseph.  Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003.Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.  A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989.Hanks, Patrick.  Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003.Reaney, P.H.  A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997.Smith, Elsdon C.  American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

The Multivariate of family Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Multivariate of family - Essay Example Though some things are natural for people, Santorum restricts any variations, which may occur as the society develops, and expands its norms and traditions to adjust to the changing nature of human relations. Human beings develop certain connections and ties that help them function effectively with regard to their daily duties and responsibilities. I would say that society is built on the rules and norms, as well as freedoms and liberties. In this case, rules serve to restrict freedoms to the extent that prevents violence, reduces risk of anarchy, and regulates different types of relations, including those between family members, colleagues, officials, or laws enforcement units. â€Å"When liberals think about society, they see only â€Å"individuals† – not men and women and children† (Santorum 129). The fact that individuals act in a specific way, which does not differ greatly from what the society considers normal, it goes as something natural regardless of the gender, age, or social position. When individuals within the social framework need some retreat from the natural laws and it does not contradict the social norm greatly, it may serve on the same basis as eve rything that have been established for effective functioning of society. When individuals go to work and receive wages, this is treated as normal, whereas any deviation from this norm results in strikes and demonstrations of social protest. The same happens when people enjoy certain rights and freedoms on a daily basis, not wanting to refuse from those freedoms for the sake of natural vision. According to Santorum, the society that has other formula for the family than the one that is based on a heterosexual relations of a man and a woman, should be treated as â€Å"a false vision, because nature is nature, and the freedom to choose against the natural law is not really freedom at

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Commissioner Of Internal Revenue Research Paper

Commissioner Of Internal Revenue - Research Paper Example Conducting the event in a tournament setting did not transform the poker activity into something other than wagering. Further, the act of betting is intrinsic to poker, regardless of whether it occurs in tournament poker or "live action" poker. Finally, the taxpayer's argument that tournament poker should be treated the same way as sports such as golf or tennis was rejected. Congress's decision to draw clear distinctions can mainly be viewed as a reasonable form of setting out the distinction without violating due process or equal protection. At trial, petitioners concurred that Mr. Tschetschot was not a professional gambler but argued that Mrs. Tschetschots professional tournament poker playing is not gambling and thus not subject to the limitations of section 165(d) on losses from gambling. The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), as cited is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law in the United States, published in various volumes of the United States Statutes at Large, and separately as Title 26 of the United States Code (USC).It is organized topically, into subtitles and sections, covering various types of taxes as well as procedure and administration. Its implementing agency is the Internal Revenue Service. In reference to the Black’s law dictionary, gaming is defined as the act or practice of playing games for stakes or wagers; gambling; the playing at any game of hazard (re Stewart (D. C.) 21 Fed. 398). (2) An agreement between two or more persons to play together at a game of chance for a stake or wager which is to become the property of the winner, and to which all contribute(People v.Todd, 51 Hun, 440, 4 N. Y. Supp. 25;)

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Lawyer Ed Masry on a referral Essay Example for Free

Lawyer Ed Masry on a referral Essay Erin Brockovich is a true American hero who’s icon status and â€Å"stick-to-it-iveness† only fuels her determination to expose injustice and lend her voice to those who do not have one. Erin Brockovich is a single mother, unemployed, struggling to make ends meet in a world not particularly kind to single moms. After a car accident leads her to seek legal redress, she meets lawyer Ed Masry on a referral. When he loses her lawsuit, she shows up at his office, demanding a job, barely hiding her desperation. Intimidated, Ed gives her one. By pursuing her own curiosity she brings on a difficult and huge case about PGE. PGE’s desire to increase its profits was so big that they didn’t even care about their neighbors’ health or security. In a world where heroes are often in short supply, the story of Erin Brockovich is an inspirational reminder of the power of the human spirit. Her passion, tenacity and steadfast desire to fight for the rights of the underdog defied the odds. Her victory made even more sweet by the fact that while helping others, she in turn helped herself. This story is not just a triumph of the little guy over the big nasty corporation, its the journey of one woman down the path of self-discovery as well. If only the world had more â€Å"Erin Brockoviches† in it, perhaps there would be more honesty in it. Profile of an extraordinary woman â€Å"She brought a small town to its feet and a huge corporation to its knees.† After watching the movie I realized that Erins public self was pretty much the same as her private self: she treated Ed, her boss in the same manner as she treated George, her boyfriend. Erin didnt take crap from anybody but at times she did let her aggressions take over. Most of the time these hostilities would lead her in contempt, but in the long run usually worked out for the best. It was a good way to get her point across at times but from my perspective she could have approached some of these situations a little differently, for example the night Erin met George she could have asked him nicely to be quiet instead of chewing him out angrily, even after he tried repeatedly to apologize to her. She is aggressive and she loses her temper easily. Another example of this is point where Ed takes on a partner for advice and help with costs on the PGE cases and when Erin walks in and finds out, she immediately feels offended and flies off the handle when she could have used a pillow method so to speak, to look at the situation from Eds point of view and realize that taking on this partner was in the best interests of the case. Incensed by what she has found, Erin begins a crusade to make Pacific Gas Electric accountable for the illness and death that they have caused. Driven by her own persistence and desire to seek justice for the townspeople, Erin goes door to door to sign up over 600 plaintiffs for a direct-action lawsuit against PGE. However, not everyone shares Erins enthusiasm to see justice done with PGE being the largest employer in the area, Erin finds a number of townspeople leery of rocking the boat. Nonetheless, Erins persistence and the personal interest she takes in their lives makes them listen. She is one of them. A kindred spirit and her ability to connect with them on their level makes them comfortable, ultimately earning their trust. She thrives on being the voice for those who don’t know how to yell. Along with trust and honesty comes respect. When a person is trusted and shown to be honest, that person is respected for those reasons. Erin experiences respect of her for the first time with the community of Hinkley. Once she knows how it feels to be respected, she realizes how valuable that asset can be: â€Å"For the first time in my life, I’ve got people respecting me. When I walk into a room, people shut up to see if I have anything to say. I never had that before. Please, don’t ask me to give that up.† Erin was also respected for her compassion and selflessness. She genuinely cared about every single victim of P.G. E.’s lie. She proved this fact when Theresa said Erin’s files needed some holes filled in and Erin recited from memory all the information Theresa wanted and more. Someone who doesn’t have compassion and caring for the townspeople of Hinkley would not have been able to do that. When Erin is hired there is some internal grumbling at the law firm, as a number of Erins co-workers resent her outspoken personality and questionable style of dress. She talks in a non-polite way, she always goes straight to her point and she is not afraid of saying what’s in her mind, she is brutally honest: â€Å"Thats all you got, lady. Two wrong feet and ugly shoes!† She also loves ironies: â€Å"I just went out there and performed sexual favors†. Erin is always able to get the evidences she needs by using the means she has, she is extremely confident.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Crossing Over With John Edwards :: Media Television Paranormal Essays

Crossing Over With John Edwards The article that I have picked is from Entertainment Weekly. This article goes into detail about skeptics whose websites debunk all things paranormal. The skeptics focus on John Edwards, a medium, also known as a cold reader ( In the article, John Edwards is described as having a show named "Crossing Over With John Edwards," a Sci Fi Channel seance that has recently been reincarnated as a nationwide syndicated series. During this hour long show, John Edwards surrounds himself with an audience and picks out people at random. After saying a name out loud, he then finds that person and focuses his attention towards that one individual. Then he starts firing certain questions to this individual only wanting a yes or a no answer. Once he starts to get yes answers, he knows that he is on the right path to getting the individual to believe anything he says. John Edwards has claimed that he can communicate with the dead, but the web skeptics in the next few paragraphs think otherwise. One web skeptic from the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal ( describes the technique that explains John Edwards abilities to communicate with the dead and also have the ability to uncover personal details about the dead people, sight unseen. This technique is called "The Art of Cold Reading." One reading by Edward performed on Larry King Live is being dissected on the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal ( site by Joe Nickell. Now Joe Nickell goes onto describing how John Edwards incorporates "The Art of Cold Reading" into his act. For example, John Edwards poses questions like "Im getting an older male who is there on the other side," in away that is correct but it has a wide scope, it could mean that he is a friend, brother, uncle, father, grandfather take your pick(E.Weekly, Sept. 21,2001, 86). An Australian skeptics website (, says that the scenario on the Larry King Live show was true, but the lady that called in actually wanted to communicate with her mother. But John Edwards persistant questionings about the gentlemen figure won out because she was so busy wondering who this gentlemen was that she actually forgot she wanted to communicate with her mother. Now cold readers often focus on their "after death communication" by rapid-firing through a number of different possibilities.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Liberalism Notes Essay

* Mainstream western philosophy. Other philosophies define themselves in relation to liberalism. * Evolution over time, though constant stress on individual freedom. Intellectual antecedents are 16th century religious reformations, 17th century scientific revolution and 18th century Enlightenment. !8th/19th century industrialisation created new class interests with commitment to reform programme – so term ‘liberalism’ dates from early 19th century. * Liberalism a reaction to 19th century absolutist regimes – hence inextricably bound up with national self-determination. Movements for national freedom/unity associated with demands for civil/political rights and for constitutional checks on government. Contrast with Britain, where parliamentary sovereignty established in 17th century – hence liberal domestic programme focused on other objectives such as parliamentary reform, religious toleration and free trade. * 19th century continental liberalism primarily a political creed – and even in Britain the centrality of free markets to liberalism has been exaggerated. Victorian liberalism stood for political reform at home and support for constitutional/national movements abroad. Inspired more by religion (radical nonconformism) than by economics. Indeed from 19th century British liberalism repudiated laisser-faire and accepted need for state intervention (‘New Liberalism’) – especially in social welfare. * Decline of Liberal Party in 20th century, but ascendancy of liberal ideas. Dominant orthodoxy until late 1970s was derived from New Liberalism – Keynes and Beveridge marked culmination of New Liberal thinking. Challenge to consensus came principally from an older free market version of liberalism – i.e. neo-liberalism. Battle of ideas post 1945 less between left and right than between old and new liberalism. * Today ‘liberal’ has different meanings in different places – UK Liberals/Liberal Democrats long seen as centre/left of centre; in EU liberalism normally associated with the right; in USA a term of abuse for radical-progressive (crypto-socialist) ideas; label also associated with free market advocates (Hayek, Friedman, New Right). And almost all mainstream ideologies can be regarded as variants of liberalism. * Liberal values/ideas of vital historical importance – central to development of British political tradition UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS AND VALUES OF LIBERALISM * Hall (1986) describes liberals as ‘open-minded, tolerant, rational, freedom-loving people, sceptical of the claims of tradition and established authority, but strongly committed to the values of liberty, competition and individual freedom’. 19th century liberalism ‘stood for individualism in politics, civil and political rights, parliamentary government, moderate reform, limited state intervention, and a private enterprise economy’. Widespread agreement over key liberal ideas/values – though not over their later development and interpretation. * Key assumption is individualism. Individuals (rather than nations/races/classes) are the starting point. Society an aggregate of individuals; social behaviour explained in terms of some basic assumptions about human psychology. Some liberal thinkers saw society as an artificial creation – prior state of nature where neither society nor government existed. Implication that society and government were purposefully created by individuals in pursuit of their own self-interest. So no social interests beyond the interests of individuals who make up society. * Individuals pursue their own self-interest rationally. No-one else (especially rulers) can determine the individual’s own interest. Optimistic assumption that the general pursuit of rational self-interest will produce not only individual satisfaction but also social progress and the happiness of the greatest number. * Freedom the key value – individuals must be free to pursue their own self-interest (Mill). Originally this had a negative interpretation – i.e. importance of freedom from external constraint. In early history of liberalism this entailed firm limits on power of government to interfere with individual liberty. An important application was principle of toleration – applied especially to religious belief – championed by Locke (1689) – Mill (1859) went on to demand full freedom of thought and expression. Later some liberals stressed freedom to enjoy certain benefits (positive liberty) thus entailing extensive state intervention to enlarge freedom (Green (1881) and Hobhouse (1911) and Berlin (1975)). Conflict between positive and negative views of freedom (and divergent implications) a major theme in the development of liberalism in 20th century. * Influence of egalitarian assumptions. So stress on equality before the law, and equal civil and political rights (though little agreement on what these should be in practice). Some liberals thus justify state provision of education et al – to create greater equality of opportunity. But this commitment generally accompanied by acceptance of considerable inequality of income and wealth – so in practice equality sacrificed to liberty? * Freedom entails the freedom to be unequal? But liberals deny that individual liberty is inconsistent with social justice. Self-seeking individualism, yes – but equation of might and right, no. Squaring of circle – attempt to make justice consistent with pursuit of rational self-interest (Rawls, 1971). Implies optimistic view of human nature – and thus scope for reconciling individual and collective goals. Hence liberalism differs here from traditional conservatism (more pessimistic about human nature) and socialism (deny reconciliation can be readily achieved) SUMMARY OF THE HISTORICAL WHIG-LIBERAL TRADITION * 17th century – Puritanism and Parliamentarism * Late 17th/18th century – The Whig Tradition: ‘Glorious Revolution’ (Locke), constitutional monarchy, government by consent, division of powers, religious toleration (Charles James Fox), oligarchy, mercantilism. * Late 18th/early 19th century – Radicalism: revolution (Paine), rationalism, rights of man. * Classical liberalism (Smith) – Individualism (Malthus), free markets (Ricardo), utilitarianism (Bentham), representative democracy ( James Mill). * Mid 19th/later 19th century – Victorian Liberalism: Manchester liberalism (Cobden), nonconformism (Bright), free trade (Gladstone), nationalism (Mill), municipal gospel (Joseph Chamberlain). * Late 19th century/early 20th century – New Liberalism (T.H.Green): social reform (Hobhouse), state intervention (Hobson), liberal imperialism (Edward Grey), national efficiency (Asquith), constitutional reform (Lloyd George). * 1920s to 1970s – Decline of Liberal Party but progressive liberal consensus (Keynes, Beveridge). * Late 20th century/early 21st century – Liberal revival? (Steel): European Union (Ashdown), devolution (Kennedy). THE WHIG TRADITION * Whig party in 17th century – opposed royal absolutism and championed religious dissent; support for rights of parliament and for limits on royal power. Influence of Locke (1632-1704) – belief in natural rights to life, liberty and property; government should rest on consent of governed, whose rebellion was justified if their rights were infringed. Need for constitutional limits on government, and division between legislative and executive powers – ideas enshrined (imperfectly) in British Constitution post 1688 Glorious Revolution, and later helped to inspire French and American Revolutions. * Contradictions in Whiggism. Defence of material interests – aristocrats and merchant/banking allies sought to preserve own power, property, privileges from threat of crown. No concern for massive 18th century wealth/income inequalities. And no wish to spread power beyond the propertied, so constitution they developed/defended was oligarchic/conservative. Fortunes made out of war, slave trade, India. Enclosure of land at expense of rural poor; ruthless enforcement of game laws. * Radical interpretation of Whiggism also – no taxation without representation (slogan of parl. opposition to the Stuarts) also became cry of American colonies. 1776 Declaration of Independence based on Whig principles; French revolution welcomed by most Whigs – Whig leader Charles James Fox defended its principles/championed civil liberties in England (until death in 1806). * Out of office, 1783-1830, so able to proclaim continued attachment to ‘peace, retrenchment and reform’ – unsuccessful parl. Reform bills, 1797 and 1810. Some credit claimed for abolition of slave trade, while traditional Whig demand for religious toleration reaffirmed in support for Catholic emancipation. * Defection of ‘Old Whigs’ and accommodation within Foxite remnant of party of new radical generation, committed to reform, helped to preserve/reestablish a politically progressive Whig tradition that ultimately merged into liberalism. 1832 Reform Act the culmination of the Whig tradition – yet underlines its essentially conservative nature – very modest franchise extension (some of the propertied middle classes). Yet new urban centres gained at the expense of the shires; manufacturing/commerce at the expense of land. Whig aristocrats ultimately lost influence to urban-based business and professional middle classes (the muscle behind Victorian liberalism), though Whigs remained an important, if diminishing, element within the Liberal coalition until the late 19th century. (An antidote to those who view liberalism almost exclusively in terms of free markets – neglects the Whig foundations). * The Whig-Liberal tradition is essentially a political tradition, concerned with constitutional issues/civil liberties/parl. sovereignty/ government by consent/freedom of conscience and religious observance/no taxation without representation. Whiggism served economic interests but never really an economic doctrine – not about free trade/markets. Foreign trade policy in 17th/18th centuries mercantilist – aimed to secure (through colonisation, Navigation Acts and war) the largest possible British share of world trade. RADICALS * Radical reformers – at different times, interwoven with or opposed to Whig tradition – influence on both liberalism and socialism. Radicalism a broad term, with different connotations for different periods, yet huge influence on British liberalism and 19th century Liberal party. * Paine (1737-1809) never absorbed into the Whig (later Liberal) establishment – argued that once sovereignty had been transferred from the monarch to the people, there was no logical case for restricting the franchise – his ideas the logical outcome of Whig slogans. Paine a liberal? (uncompromising individualism, sympathies with manfacturers, hostility to government). Or a socialist? (Blueprint for the Welfare State, support for graduated income tax, inspiration for Chartists). More impact in USA/France than in Britain – seen as dangerous due to uncompromising republicanism, total opposition to hereditary principle, rejection of Christianity. * ‘Philosopher radicals’ (or utilitarians) such as Bentham were in touch with progressive Whigs; Whitbread and Brougham constituted the progressive wing of the parl. party. Cobbett’s radical populism harked back to pre-industrial age; Bright (Quaker manufacturer) belonged to new generation of post 1832 MPs – himself displaced by new breed of radicals who took over the Liberal party in latter part of 19th century. * Radical pressure reinforced Whig commitment to parliamentary reform in 1832, and later. Association with religious dissent in 2nd half of 19th century imbued it with strong moral character – fuelled demands for non-denominational state education and C of E disestablishment. Also strongly associated with the ‘municipal gospel’ in local government. Fusion of Whigs and radicals with former Peelites created Liberal Party, 1859. Whigs continued to dominate Liberal Cabinets, but radicals dominated increasingly important grass roots level, especially after 1859 formation of the National Liberal Federation. * ‘Yet it was a relatively restrained, religiously inspired, and peculiarly British strand of radicalism which eventually prevailed rather than the fiercely rationalist, republican radicalism of Paine.’ CLASSICAL ECONOMICS AND UTILITARIANISM * Intellectual (rather than moral) influence on Victorian liberalism of classical economists and utilitarians. Smith (1732-90), Malthus (1766-1834) and Ricardo (1772-1823) established importance of markets in the allocation/distribution of resources. And Bentham’s (1748-1832) utility principle was applied to a wide range of institutions/practices – fiercely rationalist analysis (‘What use is it?’). ‘The greatest happiness of the greatest number’ was ‘the only right and proper end of government’. * Both stemmed from the 18th century Enlightenment; both shared the individualist/rationalist assumptions underpinning liberalism; each tended to share the implications of the other’s approach. Mill had a foot in both camps. * But modern neo-liberals argue it is only Smith and Hume (18th century Scottish Enlightenment) who represent the true spirit of liberalism. Bentham et al are blamed for ideas which ‘provided a warrant for much later illiberal interventionist policy’ (Gray, 1986). The ‘greatest happiness’ principle is seen as a breach of free market economics, since the principle of representative democracy (advocated by Mill who converted Bentham) might involve electoral pressures for interference with free market forces; moreover, neo-liberals are opposed to Bentham’s advocacy of bureaucracy, and thus the appointment of qualified, salaried public officials. The contradictory implications of Benthamite thinking are seen in the utilitarian-influenced Poor Law Amendment Act (1834) – the able-bodied poor must enter a workhouse where their condition would be ‘less eligible’ than that of the lowest independent labourer (free market incentives); at the same time theAct required a comprehensive network of administrative areas and officials, and a large degree of central control and inspection (bureaucracy). * Hence modern neo-liberals are critical of Bentham’s ‘constructivist rationalism’ (Hayek, 1975); Gray (1986) claims that it ‘had an inherent tendency to spawn policies of interventionist social engineering’. Their refusal to recognise Bentham as a liberal involves an artificial conception of liberalism which has little in common with the Whig/Liberal tradition. * The major classical economists contributed significantly to Victorian liberalism, but their ideas were extensively vulgarised. Even Smith allowed for significant exceptions to his ‘invisible hand’. Popularisers such as Harriet Martineau, Edward Baines and Samuel Smiles reduced the principles of classical economics to laissez-faire (for governments) and self-help (for individuals). Public policy, moreover, was never consistently governed by laissez-faire – look at the various Factory Acts, Public Health Acts and Acts to regulate the railways and banks passed in the early Victorian period. VICTORIAN LIBERALISM * Although the term ‘liberal’ was applied from the early 19th century, the Liberal Party emerged only in the 1850s from a party realignment of Whigs, radicals and Peelite Conservatives. Gladstone (1809-98), originally a Con. follower of Peel, the embodiment of Victorian liberalism. Domination of Liberal party, and shaped in his own image; he became more radical and populist with age. Also inspired by Christian moral fervour – struck chord among nonconformists. So Gladstonian liberalism a moral crusade (Vincent, 1966). * Several strands. Parliamentary reform – derived from Whig tradition; advocacy of Bright, then Gladstone turned it into a populist cause. Proposals for modest franchise extension developed into radical demands for full manhood suffrage. Nonconformist strand – while the 1860s parliamentary party was still overwhelmingly Anglican, the Liberals were becoming ‘the party of the nonconformist conscience’ (Vincent, 1966).Nonconformist pressures spawned the National Education League (to campaign for a national, free and secular system of education), which provided the model for the National Liberal Federation (1877) which established a national organisation for he Liberal party, and tipped it decisively towards radical nonconformism. By the 1880s the PLP (and the party in the country) was predominantly nonconformist. * Support for liberal and nationalist movements in Europe, especially Italian unification, helped create Palmerston’s 1859 government and kept it intact; Gladstone campaigned against the Bulgarian atrocities, bringing him out of premature retirement and into close collaboration with the nonconformists. The religious fervour behind his mission to pacify Ireland both split the party and strengthened the moral element in liberalism. * ‘Manchester liberalism’ also quite influential in the party after 1859. Free trade was established as a liberal principle. Gladstone, as Chancellor, built on earlier work of Cobden and Bright (Anti Corn Law League, 1846 – repeal of Corn Laws reflected transfer of power from landed to manufacturing interests) by abolishing a range of duties; Cobden negotiated Anglo-French trade treaty of 1860. But free trade did not entail laissez-faire in domestic policy – Cobden’s opposition to Factory Acts increasingly out of tune with the times. * Increased state intervention entailed by liberal practice – major reforms in education, the army, the law and civil service, 1868-74. Third Reform Act, 1884 – triumph of radical demands over Whig caution. Chamberlain’s ‘Unauthorised Programme’ (1885) and the ‘Newcastle Programme’ (1891) marked decisive shift towards radicalism. * Pace of change too fast for some – Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) combined laissez-faire economics with evolutionary survival of the fittest; opposition to most forms of state intervention being introduced by Liberals at national and local level; but out of step. By contrast, Mill (1806-73) key transitional figure in evolution of liberalism. ‘The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of any of their number is self-protection’ (1859) – effectively a plea for minimal state intervention (Mill denounced censorship and argued for full liberty of thought and expression). Yet his commitment to individuality (and advocacy of democracy) caused him to fear the ‘tyranny of the majority’ and ‘the despotism of custom’, seen as a greater threat to individuality than deliberate actions by governments. So a ‘watershed thinker’ in the development of liberalism from indivi dualism to collectivism (Gray, 1986). LIBERALISM, CAPITALISM AND DEMOCRACY * Liberalism closely associated with rise of industrial capitalism – preeminently the creed of the owners of industrial/financial capital. Its political objectives focused on the enfranchisement of the new middle classes and the transfer of political power to the major manufacturing urban centres. No coincidence that Liberal party finally emerged in the 1850s when Britain’s industrial and commercial dominance was unchallenged, and the working classes were ununionised and unenfranchised. Even further back, protestant dissent (and especially puritanism) embodied ideas favourable to the spirit of capitalist accumulation. * But British liberalism cannot be simply derived from capitalism. The leading Whig MPs, who were still prominent in 19th century Liberal governments, were large landowners; many rank and file Liberals were not manufacturers but small shopkeepers and tradesmen; many of the working class were attached to the Liberal cause (even before the vote). In practice liberalism a coalition of class interests. Many of its causes – temperance, religious disestablishment, home rule – were scarcely connected with the interests of capitalism. Leading liberal thinkers – Mill, Hobhouse, Keynes, Beveridge – gave capitalism only qualified support. * Establishment of capitalist economy accompanied by the gradual establishment of a liberal democratic system – no coincidence. Indeed, Marxist view is that rep. democracy offers best shell for capitalism – so hardly surprising that party of the bourgeoisie was at forefront of parliamentary reform movement, though stopping short of support for full rep. democracy. Gray (1986, and a neo-liberal) accounts for this by arguing that unlimited democracy ‘cannot be liberal government since it respects no domain of independence or liberty as being immune to invasion by governmental authority’. * But representative democracy in early 19th century was largely untried, so not surprising liberals were apprehensive about what was a radical minority cause. Yet Paine advocated full manhood suffrage, and Mill argued for extension to women of full political rights. Once the logic of reform was accepted and liberals became committed to the theory and practice of rep. democracy their conversion was wholehearted, and seen by many (such as Chamberlain) as a justification for abandoning earlier limitations to government intervention. Herbert Samuel (1902) argued a reformed state could be entrusted with social reform – ‘Now democracy has been substituted for aristocracy as the root principle of the constitution †¦.the State today is held worthy to be the instrument of the community in many affairs for which the State of yesterday was clearly incompetent.’. Acceptance of democracy a critical step towards New Liberalism. Inexorable logic by which liberals progressed from parliamentary reform to representative democracy, to state intervention – and the apparent abandonment of some of the principles associated with earlier liberalism. THE NEW LIBERALISM * Flourished in late 19th/early 20th centuries – involved state economic/social reform which repudiated laissez-faire liberalism. Controversial development – natural extension and refinement of the old principles OR culmination of ‘anti-liberal elements’ present in the liberal tradition from the 1840s in the work of Mill. (Socialist critics dismiss NL as a forlorn attempt to revive an outmoded ideology –Arblaster, 1984). * Origins of NL? Influence of Hegelian idealism? Party project to win working class support and head off rising Labour challenge? Need to modernise British economy/society and thus to compete more effectively? Or simply a rationalisation of the substantial growth in government intervention that had already occurred? * Key NL thinkers were Green, Hobson and Hobhouse. Green (1836-82) an Oxford philosopher and Hegelian; Hobson an economist who believed under-consumption to be the cause of unemployment; Hobhouse (1864-1929) a philosopher/sociologist. Common aim to redefine old liberal values in line with new political practice. So freedom, according to Green, meant a positive power or capacity – and must be enjoyed by all. Hobson referred to ‘the provision of equal opportunities for self-development’ – so state intervention might be needed to remove obstacles. (But ‘each enlargement of the authority and functions of the State must justify itself as an enlargement of personal liberty, interfering with individuals only in order to set free new and larger opportunities’). Hobhouse justified interference with the market to secure ‘the right to work’ and ‘the right to a living wage’, given the powerlessness of individual workers to secure such rights. * Liberal politicians were more cautious than the NL ideologues, though were increasingly interventionist, both at national and at local level. Locally, enthusiasm for civic improvements amounted to a ‘municipal gospel’ – city government seen as a test-bed for policies which could be applied nationally. Chamberlain (1836-1914) a radical Liberal mayor of Birmingham before moving to national politics (later split with Gladstone and allied with the Conservatives) – campaign for the ‘Unauthorised Programme’ (1895) based on LG experience – hospitals, schools, museums, libraries, galleries, baths, parks, etc. Explicit rejection of laissez-faire, which was equivalent to acceptance of ‘selfish wealth’ alongside poverty; accepted charge that proposed reforms were in practice socialism. Radical, reforming approach of 1895 UA echoed in 1891 Newcastle programme. At national level, little opportunity to implement the NL programme before the Liberal landslide victory of 1906. * 1906-14 Liberal Government – key figures were Asquith and Lloyd George. Welfare reforms included provision of school meals and OAPs, and LG’s introduction of national health and unemployment insurance (1911). LG’s 1909 budget involved some modest income/wealth redistribution through the land tax and progressive income tax. And Churchill’s labour exchanges showed willingness to intervene in the labour market. * Key stimulus was rising challenge of labour; historians disagree over electoral appeal of state welfare – advocated by leaders of organised working class, but not necessarily popular with working class voters, and frightened many middle class voters. Rosebery (briefly PM post Gladstone) thought Newcastle programme cost the party votes, though his Liberal Imperialism appealed to a chauvinistic working class, while his more modest economic/social reform programme promoted ‘National Efficiency’ and appealed to progressive businessmen set on competing successfully with the rising economies of Germany, USA and Japan. DECLINE OF THE LIBERAL PARTY – AND TRIUMPH OF LIBERALISM? * NL failed to prevent decline of Liberal party. WW1 undermined Liberal internationalism. Pressures towards collectivism/coercion associated with modern warfare created huge strains for Liberal individualism – especially on symbolic issue of conscription. And after WW1 many Liberal causes (religious nonconformism, temperance, free trade) seemed less relevant. * Yet ‘the disintegration of the Liberal party signifies the triumph of liberalism .. if liberalism is now partly invisible, this is because so many of its assumptions and ideals have infiltrated political practice and current awareness.’ (Eccleshall, 1986). Culmination of liberal thought seen in Beveridge’s social welfare proposals and in Keynesian economic theory – provided basis of the post WW2 ideological consensus. 1942 Beveridge Report based on insurance principle, and was in keeping with spirit of LG’s 1911 insurance scheme – though much more comprehensive. Keynes’ economic theory provided for macro government intervention but allowed markets to operate freely at the micro level. Both B and K favoured private ownership of the means of production. ‘It was precisely this kind of state intervention to promote employment and welfare provision which was favoured by earlier NLs like Green and Hobhouse. * Other liberal ideas long absorbed into British culture. 1960s changes in the law – on divorce, homosexuality and abortion; some relaxation of censorship – all compatible with Mill’s 1859 proclamation of principles of individual liberty. Later laws on equal pay, equal opportunities, and race and sex discrimination in 1970s fully consistent with liberal ideology. Thus a ‘progressive liberal orthodoxy’ was established, with support from all parties. * Apparent triumph of economic/social ideas of NL complicated by revival (from 1970s onwards) of the older free market liberalism associated with classical economics. Hence modern use of term ‘liberal’ requires a qualifying prefix. Hence progressive (or social) liberals advocate penal reform, civil liberties, protection of rights of minorities, freedom of expression, and open government – unashamed economic interventionists. Neo-liberals (Hayek, Friedman) favour free market ideas – on the right of the political spectrum, with key influence on the New Right and on Thatcherite conservatism. THE IDEAS OF MODERN LIBERALS AND LIBERAL DEMOCRATS * Modest revival in Liberal party fortunes began in 1960s; accelerated in mid 1970s; given impetus by alliance with SDP in 1983 and 1987; merger to form LDs. Now involved in coalition in Scotland and Wales, have large role in English LG, and 52 MPs after 2001 General Election. Accompanied by revival in associated political ideas. * Policies of Liberals/LDs involve continuation of NL tradition – welfare capitalism, with strong stress upon individual rights. Distinctive Liberal policies included early advocacy of UK membership of EU, devolution, incomes policies, partnership in industry, electoral and other constitutional reform, and a focus on the community (linked with Liberal successes in LG). * Postwar Liberal party did little to extend/develop liberalism – no startling new ideas or major thinkers. Neither electoral successes nor failures owed much to liberal ideology. Key decisions for leadership have been tactical, not ideological – whether to accept Heath’s coalition offer in 1974, whether to support the Labour government after 1977, how to handle the SDP breakaway from Labour in 1981, and how soon to promote a merger with the SDP. In fact, more intellectual ferment among the SDP, and their post -merger remnants. Dividing line between NL and Fabian socialism has always been thin? Hobhouse talked of ‘liberal socialism’ in 1911; Hobson joined Labour after WW1. Thinner still following revisionist tendencies on the Labour Right in the 1950s, and the SDP breakaway in 1981. Hence the Liberal/SDP Alliance (and later merger) can be seen as the practical expression of an ideological convergence that was already well under way (Behrens, 1989). B ut ultimately it was the Liberals that swallowed the SDP, and not the other way round – so the modern LDs are the clear lineal descendants of the old Liberal party. * Paradoxically, as fortunes of the Liberals/LDs have risen, LD ideas have become less distinctive. For most of post WW2 period Liberals adopted an intermediate position between Con and Lab. Briefly, in early 1980s, Liberals (and allies) seemed to offer a distinctive middle way between Thatcherism and left wing socialism. Since then Lab has reoccupied the centre ground previously vacated, leaving the LDs with little ideological space and few distinctive ideas or policies – on the management of the economy, constitutional reform, Europe, defence and foreign policy the differences between the LDs and Lab are ARGUABLY more of degree than kind. * Under Ashdown’s leadership, coalition with Labour seemed logical, even likely, given Blair’s keenness to heal the divisions on the centre-left which had left the Cons dominant for most of the 20th century. Coalitions in LG and in the devolved bodies provide continuing impetus – but sheer scale of Lab’s victories in 1997 and 2001 (and resistance within both parties) have weakened the project. LDs have pursued a more independent and critical line under Kennedy, without yet returning to earlier policy of equidistance between Lab and Con. * Attempts made to articulate a distinctive LD philosophy in these unpromising political circumstances – by Wallace (1997), Russell (1999) and Ballard (2000). Yet terminology employed – cooperation, working with others, partnership politics, community – shared by New Labour and progressive Conservatives. Higher profile of LDs has drawn attention to considerable diversity of views in the party – ‘free market liberals, social liberals, conservatives with a social conscience and dissatisfied ex-Labour voters, greens, anarchists †¦.’ (Ballard, 2000). Shows tolerance and inclusiveness? But not ideological coherence. The real problem is that there is now little distinctive ideological ground for the LDs to occupy, but this underlines the widespread acceptance of liberal ideas across mainstream British political parties.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay - 1072 Words

Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of American literatures finest writers; his writing style was very distinct and unusual in some aspects. It is his background that provided this ambiguous and complex approach to writing. Hawthornes New England heritage has, at times, been said to be the contributing factor in his works. The Puritan view of life itself was considered to be allegorical, their theology rested primarily on the idea of predestination and the separation of the saved and the damned As evident from Hawthornes writings his intense interest in Puritanical beliefs often carried over to his novels such as, Young Goodman Brown, The Scarlet Letter, and The Ministers Black Veil just to name a few of the more well known pieces of his work.†¦show more content†¦Both men Dante and Young Goodman Brown embark on a somewhat spiritual journey and come out of it with an insight that they never possessed before relating to the world and their beliefs. Young Goodman Brown had the allegor ical elements similar to Dantes Inferno with the use of color, ambiguous statements and the representation of objects. An example of this type of ambiguity of language is when the old man convinces Goodman Brown to come with him: Let us walk on, nevertheless, reasoning as we go, and if I convince thee not, thou shalt turn back. We are but a little way in the forest yet (Hawthorne 615) This statement can be taken one of two ways, either for the literal sense in which the old man is urging him to come or for the allegorical way in which this shows Goodman Brown has a choice in his destiny to make the right decision and turn his back on Satan when he sees Gods way is better. Upon returning home Goodman Brown comes to the realization that all the people that meant most in his life that he believed were righteous, upstanding, God fearing citizens were all guilty of being influenced by the devil. Whether he dreamed this or not what happened to him in the forest changed his life in such a dramatic way that it compels him to live the rest of it out in gloom and despair as evident from this paragraph: Often, awakening suddenly at midnight, he shrank from the bosom of Faith, and at morning or eventide, when the family knelt down at prayer, heShow MoreRelatedThe Birthmark By Nathaniel Hawthorne1493 Words   |  6 PagesRomantic period authors, like Nathaniel Hawthorne, a prevalent example of a Romantic author from the 19th century, believed that people were getting too reliant on on science. Romantics were literary rebels who wrote about strong emotions, the supernatural, and the power of nature. The writing style of the previous century was known as the Age of Reason, the authors thought emotion was unnecessary; they loved science and wrote a lot of non-fiction. The romantics wanted to remind people that thereRead MoreWho is Nathaniel Hawthorne?953 Words   |  4 Pagesthe utmost passion of her heart† is one of my favorite quotes that Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote from the Scarlet Letter. Nathaniel Hawthorne was an American writer, that wrote fictional stories. He was a gifted writer that was influenced to use his gift by a well known man, with the name of Ralph Waldo Emerson. I believe Nathaniel had an talent to make stories rhyme with detail, that sets the scene in your very, own mind. Hawthorne had a interesting life, he enjoyed writing short stories, like Twice-ToldRead MoreBiography of Nathaniel Hawthorne547 Words   |  2 Pagesirritation of the original feeling of hostility (Hawthorne). Writers of the 1800s seemed to write in a way that would serve to the sentimental values of their readers and focus on bright, happy, or romantic topics. One Author, however, looked deep into the darker side of human nature and delved into topics such as: morality, sin, and redemption. This author was Nathaniel Hawthorne. On July 4, 1804, in Salem, Massachusetts, Nathaniel Hathorne was born to Nathaniel Hathorne and Elizabeth Clark Manning HathorneRead MoreThe Works of Nathaniel Hawthorne1175 Words   |  5 Pages Nathaniel Hawthorne was an American novelist and short story writer who was born in Salem, Massachusetts July fourth 1804. When Hawthorne was a young man he served as the editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. That job introduced him into the world of writing and at that point he decided what he wanted to do until the day he died. â€Å"I do not want to be a doctor and live by men’s diseases, nor a minister to live by their sins, nor a lawyer and live by their quarrelsRead MoreThe Birthmark By Nathaniel Hawthorne1185 Words   |  5 PagesAli Qutab Honor American Literature â€Å"The Birthmark† : Essay #4 December 30th, 2015 The Effect of Nature on the Scientific Ego of Aylmer Throughout, â€Å"The Birthmarkâ€Å", by Nathaniel Hawthorne, symbolism and imagery are used to show that Aylmer s attempt to perfect something natural is the cause of Georgiana s death and that when man manipulates something as powerful as Nature, terrible things can occur. Aylmer is a scientist whose strives for perfection and is blinded by his love for science, resultingRead MoreBiography of Nathaniel Hawthorne1273 Words   |  6 Pagesdark secrets forever. Raised as a Puritan, Nathaniel Hawthorne grew up with a devout family intensely immersed in religion. As he matured, Hawthorne discovered that his seemingly pious family was disturbingly flawed, a discovery that would radically change his life. In his short story â€Å"Young Goodman Brown,† Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Puritan family secrets aid in forming symbols of faith and evil and developing the inner complexities of his characters. Hawthorne, the sixth generation in a family of AmericanRead MoreThe Birthmark By Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay1615 Words   |  7 PagesA birthmark as referred to in this short story is the â€Å"Differences of temperament†, the inborn traits someone can develop. In Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Birthmark there are many different themes such as, nature versus science, and perfection. We see Aylmer struggle with his own temperament. For him the birthmark becomes the symbol of Georgiana’s flawed humanity, which he tries to alternate. Throughout the story, we come across several observances of otherness revolving around â€Å"The Birthmark†. AylmerRead MoreThe Birthmark By Nathaniel Hawthorne873 Words   |  4 PagesThe Birthmark is a story by Nathaniel Hawthorne the carries vast amounts of symbolism in its pages. It’s a story that you can pretty much look at anything that is involved and see how it carries some type of underlying meaning that either helps the character development or means something entirely different. The basis of the story is similar to that of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, which only came out about 20 years before The Birthmark. For the most part the story is about human imperfection andRead MoreThe Birthmark By Nathaniel Hawthorne1511 Words   |  7 PagesThe Birthmark Nathaniel Hawthorne like many other writers during the nineteenth century focused their writings on the darker aspects of life. â€Å"The Birthmark,† is set in New England and has a Puritan perspective. Aylmer, a well-known scientist, marries Georgiana who has a hand shaped birthmark upon her face. After some time during their marriage Aylmer and Georgiana decided to remove the mark through scientific means. Advancements in science and the ability to change nature were at the center ofRead MoreBiography of Nathaniel Hawthorne 1123 Words   |  5 PagesThe tall and mysterious Nathaniel Hawthorne is a man of little understanding. We know him for being very secluded and alone much of the time. We also know he had many secrets that may have accounted for the gloomy tone in his novels. He was a writer who did not believe in the game of small talk and enjoyed losing himself to a world of this own creation. Many people might have thought that Hawthorne came off as rude and uninte resting, but they had no idea of the masterpieces that laid inside his head